How Slow Can We Go? 4 Frames Per Second (fps) Versus 7.5 fps Fluoroscopy for Atrial Septal Defects (ASDs) Device Closure

Gurumurthy Hiremath, Jeffery Meadows, Phillip Moore

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


Radiation exposure remains a significant concern for ASD device closure. In an effort to reduce radiation exposure, the default fluoroscopy frame rate in our Siemens biplane pediatric catheterization laboratory was reduced to 4 fps in November 2013 from an earlier 7.5 fps fluoro rate. This study aims to evaluate the components contributing to total radiation exposure and compare the procedural success and radiation exposure during ASD device closure using 4 versus 7.5 fps fluoroscopy rates. Twenty ASD device closures performed using 4 fps fluoro rate were weight-matched to 20 ASD closure procedures using 7.5 fps fluoro rate. Baseline characteristics, procedure times and case times were similar in the two groups. Device closure was successful in all but one case in the 4 fps group. The dose area product (DAP), normalized DAP to body weight, total radiation time and fluoro time were lower in the 4 fps group but not statistically different than the 7.5 fps. The number of cine images and cine times were identical in both groups. Fluoroscopy and cineangiography contributed equally to radiation exposure. Fluoroscopy at 4 fps can be safe and effective for ASD device closure in children and adults. There was no increase in procedure time, cine time, fluoro time or complications at this slow fluoro rate. There was a trend toward decreased radiation exposure as measured by indexed DAP although not statistically significant in this small study. Further study with multiple operators using 4 fps fluoroscopy for simple interventional procedures is recommended.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1057-1061
Number of pages5
JournalPediatric Cardiology
Issue number5
StatePublished - Jun 16 2015


  • Angiography
  • Fluoroscopy
  • Pediatric cardiac catheterization
  • Radiation exposure


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