SIGNIFICANCE: The American Academy of Ophthalmology currently recommends against routine genetic testing for complex diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The results of this study demonstrate that patients are very interested in predictive genetic testing for AMD, find the information useful, and make behavioral changes as a result of the information. PURPOSE: The goal of this project was to conduct a pilot AMD genomic medicine study. METHODS: Eligible patients were aged 50 to 65 years with no personal history of AMD. DNA samples were genotyped for five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CFH gene, one SNP in the ARMS-2 gene, one SNP in the C3 gene, and one SNP in the mitochondrial ND2 gene. A risk score was calculated utilizing a model based on odds ratios, lifetime risk of advanced AMD and known population prevalence of genotype, haplotype, and smoking risk. The study optometrist provided the patient's risk score and counseling for personal protective behaviors. Telephone interviews were conducted 1 to 3 months after the counseling visit. RESULTS: One hundred one subjects (85%) participated in the genetic testing; 78 (77.2%) were female. Followup interviews were conducted with 94 participants (93.1%). More than half (n = 48) of the participants said that they were motivated to participate in the study because they had a family member with AMD or another eye or genetic disorder. Despite low risk levels,many participants reportedmaking changes as a result of the genetic testing. Twenty-seven people reported making specific changes, including wearing sunglasses and brimmed hat and taking vitamin supplements. Another 16 people said that they were already doing the recommended activities, including wearing glasses, quitting smoking, and/or taking vitamins. CONCLUSIONS: Interest in genetic testing for future risk of AMD was high in this population and resulted in support to continue current health behaviors or incentive to improve behaviors related to eye health.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Funding/Support: Grant no. 5U01HG006389 from the National Human Genome Research Institute.
© 2018 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the American Academy of Optometry.