How do clinicians prefer cultural competence training? Findings from the DSM-5 cultural formulation interview field trial

Neil Krishan Aggarwal, Peter Lam, Enrico G. Castillo, Mitchell G. Weiss, Esperanza Diaz, Renato D. Alarcón, Rob Van Dijk, Hans Rohlof, David M. Ndetei, Monica Scalco, Sergio Aguilar-Gaxiola, Kavoos Bassiri, Smita Deshpande, Simon Groen, Sushrut Jadhav, Laurence J. Kirmayer, Vasudeo Paralikar, Joseph Westermeyer, Filipa Santos, Johann Vega-DienstmaierLuis Anez, Marit Boiler, Andel V. Nicasio, Roberto Lewis-Fernández

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

32 Scopus citations


Objective: This study's objective is to analyze training methods clinicians reported as most and least helpful during the DSM-5 Cultural Formulation Interview field trial, reasons why, and associations between demographic characteristics and method preferences. Method: The authors used mixed methods to analyze interviews from 75 clinicians in five continents on their training preferences after a standardized training session and clinicians' first administration of the Cultural Formulation Interview. Content analysis identified most and least helpful educational methods by reason. Bivariate and logistic regression analysis compared clinician characteristics to method preferences. Results: Most frequently, clinicians named case-based behavioral simulations as "most helpful" and video as "least helpful" training methods. Bivariate and logistic regression models, first unadjusted and then clustered by country, found that each additional year of a clinician's age was associated with a preference for behavioral simulations: OR = 1.05 (95 % CI: 1.01-1.10; p = 0.025). Conclusions: Most clinicians preferred active behavioral simulations in cultural competence training, and this effect was most pronounced among older clinicians. Effective training may be best accomplished through a combination of reviewing written guidelines, video demonstration, and behavioral simulations. Future work can examine the impact of clinician training satisfaction on patient symptoms and quality of life.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)584-591
Number of pages8
JournalAcademic Psychiatry
Issue number4
StatePublished - Aug 1 2016

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2015 Academic Psychiatry.


  • Academic training
  • Cultural formulation interview
  • Cultural psychiatry
  • DSM-5


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