The chive maggot Bradysia cellarum and the fungus gnat B. impatiens are two primary root pests of plants, which can coexist on the same host plants and are the devastating pests on liliaceous crops and edible fungi. Their growth and development are affected by the nutrient contents of their host plants. In this study, we assessed the effects of different host plant nutrients on the nutrient contents of these two Bradysia species. The nutrients of the chive (Allium tuberosum Rottl. ex Spreng.), board bean (Vicia faba L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. ramosa Hort.), cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.), wild cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata rubra) and pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) roots were determined, and their effect on nutrient content of the two Bradysia species after feeding on the host plant for three continuous generations were evaluated. The results show that chive and B-bean contained higher levels of protein, free amino acid, soluble sugar and starch than others. As a result, the soluble sugar, fat and protein contents were significantly higher in both Bradysia species reared on chive and B-bean than on cabbage, lettuce, W-cabbage and pepper, suggesting nutritional preference of these insects. Based on our results, we concluded that the two Bradysia species displayed nutrient preference toward chive and B-bean, which provides a reference for understanding their host plant range and for control of the insect species via field crop rotations.