Factors related to parent ratings of young children’s (mean age = 3.72, range = 3–6) fidgeting and reports of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were examined in a nationally representative sample of US families via the National Household Education Surveys. In structural equation models, the number of television hours viewed daily was associated with more fidgeting (a sign of hyperactivity), which, in turn, was related to ADHD, when controlling for race/ethnicity, SES, family structure, autism, emotional disturbance and gender. The home literacy environment (shared reading, children’s books and library visits) was negatively associated with both fidgeting and hours of television. Home literacy was indirectly negatively related with ADHD via fidgeting. Boys and children with autism fidgeted more frequently, where as children from two-parent families were less likely to have ADHD. Overworked parents allowed more television viewing than other parents. The implications for future studies involving television viewing, home literacy, attention and hyperactivity are discussed.
- attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
- home literacy
- parent involvement