Limited understanding of correlates of protection from HIV transmission hinders development of an efficacious vaccine. D. J. M. Lewis and colleagues (J. Virol. 88:11648 -11657, 2014, doi:10.1128/JVI.01621-14) now report that vaginal immunization with an HIVgp140 vaccine linked to the 70-kDa heat shock protein downregulated the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coreceptor CCR5 (chemokine [C-C motif] receptor 5) and increased expression of the HIV resistance factor APOBEC3G (apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing, enzyme-catalytic, polypeptide-like 3G), in women. These effects correlated with HIV suppression ex vivo. Thus, vaccine-induced innate responses not only facilitate adaptive immunity-they may prove to be critical for preventing HIV transmission.