HIV-Specific CAR T Cells with CD28 or 4-1BB Signaling Domains Are Phenotypically and Functionally Distinct and Effective at Suppressing HIV and Simian Immunodeficiency Virus

Emily K Cartwright, Mary S Pampusch, Aaron K. Rendahl, Edward A. Berger, Natalie Coleman-Fuller, Pamela J. Skinner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

Despite mounting a robust antiviral CD8 T cell response to HIV infection, most infected individuals are unable to control HIV viral load without antiretroviral therapy (ART). Chimeric Ag receptor (CAR) T cell treatment is under intensive investigation as an alternative therapy for ART-free remission of chronic HIV infection. However, achieving durable remission of HIV will require a successful balance between CAR T cell effector function and persistence. CAR T cells with CD28 costimulatory domains have robust effector function but limited persistence in vivo, whereas CAR T cells with 4-1BB costimulatory domains present a more undifferentiated phenotype and greater in vivo persistence. We compared the in vitro phenotype and function of rhesus macaque and human CAR T cells that contained either the CD28 or 4-1BB costimulatory domain; both constructs also included CARs that are bispecific for gp120 of HIV or SIV and the CXCR5 moiety to promote in vivo homing of CAR/CXCR5 T cells to B cell follicles. Cells were transduced using a gammaretroviral vector and evaluated using flow cytometry. 4-1BB-CAR/CXCR5 T cells were phenotypically distinct from CD28-CAR/CXCR5 T cells and showed increased expression of CAR and CD95. Importantly, both CD28- and 4-1BB-CAR/CXCR5 T cells retained equal capacity to recognize and suppress SIV in vitro. These studies provide new insights into rhesus macaque and human 4-1BB- and CD28-bearing CAR T cells. ImmunoHorizons, 2022, 6: 693-704.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)693-704
Number of pages12
JournalImmunoHorizons
Volume6
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1 2022

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