Objective: To determine HIV seroincidence, study participant retention rate, and baseline predictors of HIV incidence and study retention among high-risk injection drug users (IDUs) in Xinjiang, China. Methods: A total of 508 eligible seronegative high-risk IDUs were enrolled. Study participants were tested for HIV-1 and counseled at the baseline, 6-month, and 12-month follow-up visits. Sociodemographic and behavioral data were collected during each study visit. The HIV-1 incidence rate and the retention rate were analyzed as a function of sociodemographic, behavioral, and recruitment variables. Results: At 12 months of follow-up, the HIV-1 incidence rate was 8.8 per 100 person-years (95% CI 6.3-12.0%) and the participant retention rate was 93%. Marital status at baseline was the only predictor of HIV incidence. No baseline variables were predictive of study retention. Conclusions: HIV incidence is high among IDUs in Xinjiang, China. Baseline predictors of incidence and retention were minimal. The participant retention rate in this study is promising for the undertaking of future HIV intervention studies.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The investigators are grateful to the men and women who participated in this study. Special thanks are offered to Shao Hua Wang, Ai Hua Zhang, Jing Gong Hao, Mawlan Mamtimin, Parhat Yadikar, Yongsheng Guan, Minawar Abai, Chun Mei Zhao, Xahadetgul Sulayman, Jing Wang, Gulsum Ghuja, Ben Lai Liu, Abdurahman, Jun Wei, Abdurixit, Dongbao Yu, and Yun Xia Wang. The authors would like to acknowledge support from the Xinjiang Bureau of Health, Deborah Hilgenberg of Family Health International, the Urumqi Detoxification Center, and the Xinjiang Public Security Bureau.
Sponsorship: This study was supported by the National Center for HIV/AIDS Prevention and Control of the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (China CDC), the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region CDC, the Urumqi Municipal CDC, and by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease, the National Institute of Drug Abuse, the National Institute of Child Health and Development, and the National Institute of Mental Health, United States National Institutes of Health through the HIV Prevention Trials Network (U01-A0-48011).