Lung disease encompasses acute, infectious processes and chronic, non-infectious processes such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma and lung cancer. People living with HIV are at increased risk of both acute and chronic lung diseases. Although the use of effective antiretroviral therapy has diminished the burden of infectious lung disease, people living with HIV experience growing morbidity and mortality from chronic lung diseases. A key risk factor for HIV-associated lung disease is cigarette smoking, which is more prevalent in people living with HIV than in uninfected people. Other risk factors include older age, history of bacterial pneumonia, Pneumocystis pneumonia, pulmonary tuberculosis and immunosuppression. Mechanistic investigations support roles for aberrant innate and adaptive immunity, local and systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, altered lung and gut microbiota, and environmental exposures such as biomass fuel burning in the development of HIV-associated lung disease. Assessment, prevention and treatment strategies are largely extrapolated from data from HIV-uninfected people. Smoking cessation is essential. Data on the long-term consequences of HIV-associated lung disease are limited. Efforts to continue quantifying the effects of HIV infection on the lung, especially in low-income and middle-income countries, are essential to advance our knowledge and optimize respiratory care in people living with HIV.
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