Histopathology of Diabetic Nephropathy

Paola Fioretto, Michael Mauer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

282 Scopus citations

Abstract

The clinical manifestations of diabetic nephropathy, proteinuria, increased blood pressure, and decreased glomerular filtration rate, are similar in type 1 and type 2 diabetes; however, the renal lesions underlying renal dysfunction in the 2 conditions may differ. Indeed, although tubular, interstitial, and arteriolar lesions are ultimately present in type 1 diabetes, as the disease progresses, the most important structural changes involve the glomerulus. In contrast, a substantial subset of type 2 diabetic patients, despite the presence of microalbuminuria or proteinuria, have normal glomerular structure with or without tubulointerstitial and/or arteriolar abnormalities. The clinical manifestations of diabetic nephropathy are strongly related with the structural changes, especially with the degree of mesangial expansion in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. However, several other important structural changes are involved. Previous studies, using light and electron microscopic morphometric analysis, have described the renal structural changes and the structural-functional relationships of diabetic nephropathy. This review focuses on these topics, emphasizing the contribution of research kidney biopsy studies to the understanding of the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy and the identification of patients with a higher risk of progression to end-stage renal disease. Finally, evidence is presented that the reversal of established lesions of diabetic nephropathy is possible.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)195-207
Number of pages13
JournalSeminars in nephrology
Volume27
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2007

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The natural history studies discussed here also were supported by the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation. Many of the other studies reported here were supported by National Institutes of Health grant awards (PO1-DK13083, RO1-DK054638, and RO1-DK51975).

Copyright:
Copyright 2008 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.

Keywords

  • Diabetic nephropathy
  • glomerular basement membrane
  • kidney biopsy
  • mesangial expansion
  • morphometric analysis

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