Histological comparison of healing extraction sockets implanted with bioactive glass or demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft: A pilot study

Stuart Froum, Sang Choon Cho, Edwin Rosenberg, Michael Rohrer, Dennis Tarnow

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

240 Scopus citations


Background: Various materials have been used immediately following tooth extraction to fill and/or cover the socket in an attempt to limit or prevent ridge resorption. The purpose of the present pilot study was to establish a reliable model to investigate the effect of various bone graft and bone replacement materials on extraction socket healing. This study also compared healing extraction sockets 6 to 8 months postimplantation of a bioactive glass (BG) or demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft (DFDBA) to an unfilled socket control (C). Methods: Following tooth extraction, a total of 30 sockets in 19 patients were randomly divided into 3 treatment groups: 10 sockets received BG, 10 sockets DFDBA, and 10 sockets served as unfilled controls. Primary coverage was achieved by flap advancement over each socket. Six to 8 months postextraction at time of implant placement, histological cores of the treatment sites were obtained. These cores were processed, undecalcified sections prepared and stained with Stevenel blue/van Gieson's picric fuchsin, and histomorphometrically analyzed. Vital bone, connective tissue and marrow, and residual graft particles were reported as a percentage of the total core. Results: A model system was described in humans and used to evaluate the healing response in the 3 treatment groups. Results concluded that mean vital bone present was 59.5% for BG-, 34.7% for DFDBA-, and 32.4% for C-treated sites. These differences were not statistically significant. However, the residual implant material was significantly higher in DFDBA-treated (13.5%) versus BG-treated sockets (5.5%). Conclusions: Although the differences in percent vital bone were not statistically significant among the 3 treatment groups in this pilot study, BG material was observed to act as an osteoconductive material which had a positive effect on socket healing at 6 to 8 months postextraction. Further research following implant placement in treated and control sockets is warranted to determine if bone implant contact is improved in BG-filled versus unfilled sockets.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)94-102
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of periodontology
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2002


  • Alveolar bone loss/prevention and control
  • Bone
  • Follow-up studies
  • Glass, biologically active
  • Grafts
  • Tooth extraction
  • Wound healing


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