Histologic and Ultrastructural Findings in Dogs With Chronic Respiratory Disease Suspected of Ciliary Dyskinesia

Ileana C. Miranda, Jennifer L. Granick, Anibal G. Armién

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Mucociliary clearance is a main defense mechanism of the respiratory tract, which can be inherently impaired in primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) or reversibly altered in secondary ciliary dyskinesia (SCD). Limited diagnostic test availability likely leads to misdiagnosis or underdiagnosis of PCD in animals. This study evaluated the light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) changes in the respiratory mucosa of 15 dogs with chronic respiratory disease suspected of PCD. Necropsy was performed in 1 case and 2 dogs were used as negative controls. PCD was confirmed in 1 dog, which presented with chronic otitis, bronchopneumonia, hydrocephalus and ultrastructural abnormalities in 84% of the assessed cilia, including absence of dynein arms and microtubular changes. The 14 other cases showed only nonspecific alterations, such as ciliary disorientation, compound cilia, ciliary edema, and axoneme bubbles in a minority of the evaluated cilia and were classified as SCD. Ciliary ultrastructural analysis can confirm a diagnosis of PCD if specific abnormalities exist. TEM remains an important investigational tool in veterinary medicine, as no other specific test for PCD in dogs has been standardized yet.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)802-812
Number of pages11
JournalVeterinary pathology
Issue number5
StatePublished - Sep 1 2017

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2017, © The Author(s) 2017.


  • chronic respiratory disease
  • ciliary dyskinesia
  • dogs
  • electron microscopy
  • mucociliary clearance
  • ultrastructure


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