During decision making, hippocampal activity encodes information sometimes about present and sometimes about potential future plans. The mechanisms underlying this transition remain unknown. Building on the evidence that gamma oscillations at different frequencies (low gamma [LG], 30–55 Hz; high gamma [HG], 60–90 Hz; and epsilon, 100–140 Hz) reflect inputs from different circuits, we identified how changes in those frequencies reflect different information-processing states. Using a unique noradrenergic manipulation by clonidine, which shifted both neural representations and gamma states, we found that future representations depended on gamma components. These changes were identifiable on each cycle of theta as asymmetries in the theta cycle, which arose from changes within the ratio of LG and HG power and the underlying phases of those gamma rhythms within the theta cycle. These changes in asymmetry of the theta cycle reflected changes in representations of present and future on each theta cycle. Amemiya and Redish find that hippocampal spatial representation from current to future locations depends on a balance of low gamma (30–55 Hz) and high gamma (60–90 Hz) oscillations within each theta cycle and disrupt this balance through a noradrenergic clonidine manipulation, which reduces future representations.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors thank members of the Redish laboratory for discussion about this work. This work was funded by NIH R01-MH080318 (A.D.R.) and JSPS KAKENHI-11J06508 (S.A.).
- decision making
- local field potential
- place cell
- vicarious trial and error