Hindsight Bias

Neal J. Roese, Kathleen D. Vohs

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

349 Scopus citations


Hindsight bias occurs when people feel that they "knew it all along," that is, when they believe that an event is more predictable after it becomes known than it was before it became known. Hindsight bias embodies any combination of three aspects: memory distortion, beliefs about events' objective likelihoods, or subjective beliefs about one's own prediction abilities. Hindsight bias stems from (a) cognitive inputs (people selectively recall information consistent with what they now know to be true and engage in sensemaking to impose meaning on their own knowledge), (b) metacognitive inputs (the ease with which a past outcome is understood may be misattributed to its assumed prior likelihood), and (c) motivational inputs (people have a need to see the world as orderly and predictable and to avoid being blamed for problems). Consequences of hindsight bias include myopic attention to a single causal understanding of the past (to the neglect of other reasonable explanations) as well as general overconfidence in the certainty of one's judgments. New technologies for visualizing and understanding data sets may have the unintended consequence of heightening hindsight bias, but an intervention that encourages people to consider alternative causal explanations for a given outcome can reduce hindsight bias.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)411-426
Number of pages16
JournalPerspectives on Psychological Science
Issue number5
StatePublished - Sep 2012

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This article was completed with the support of National Science Foundation Grant 817674, awarded to Neal J. Roese.


  • "knew-it-all-along" effect
  • counterfactual
  • debias
  • hindsight bias
  • metacognition
  • overconfidence


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