Highly Reduced Metal Carbonyl Anions: Synthesis, Characterization, and Chemical Properties

John E. Ellis

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103 Scopus citations


This chapter discusses highly reduced metal–carbonyl anions. In the unusually effective reducing medium of sodium-hexamethylphosphoramide (HMPA), [Mn(CO)5] underwent facile reduction to form a golden yellow to yellow brown solution. It is often important to use solutions rather than slurries of trianion salts to minimize the formation of side products during the reactions of these materials with electrophiles. Infrared spectra of Na3[M(CO)4] as solutions in HMPA or as mineral oil mulls of the solid are quite similar in terms of peak positions. Protonation reactions of [M(CO)4]3– and most of the known reactions of Na3[Re(CO)4] are examined. Perhaps the most persuasive chemical evidence for the existence of the monohydrides of manganese and rhenium is their high-yield conversion to corresponding dihydrides, which can be isolated as relatively stable crystalline solids. The tricesium salt was obtained as an orange–brown powder and the corresponding trirubidium compound was isolated as a golden to red–brown shiny microcrystalline substance. The materials are especially prone to violent decomposition when they are even gently scraped off of a fritted glass disk with a metal spatula. One very important and obvious limitation of this reductive labilization method is that the ligand to be expelled should not be susceptible to reduction either in a coordinated or free state.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-51
Number of pages51
JournalAdvances in Organometallic Chemistry
Issue numberC
StatePublished - Jan 1 1990

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
I wish to express gratitude and appreciation to all of my co-workers who are listed as joint authors in the references, to the Petroleum Research Fund, administered by the American Chemical Society, and to the National Science Foundation for continuing generous support of this research on highly reduced organometallics. Special thanks are due to Kelly V. Beamer for expert assistance with the manuscript.


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