High-temperature solar thermal processing Zn(s) and CO from ZnO(s) and C(gr) using Ti2O3(s) and TiO2(s)

R. D. Palumbo, M. B. Campbell, T. H. Grafe

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


An analytical model of a two-step solar process that produces Zn(s) and CO from ZnO(s) and C(gr) is presented. The process occurs in two steps according to the following reaction scheme: Ti2O3(s) + ZnO(s) → Zn + 2TiO2(s) (low temperature), 2TiO2(s) + C(gr) → Ti2O3(s) + CO (high temperature). We demonstrate theoretical effects of operating conditions on process performance. The reactions were also studied experimentally. We produced Zn(s) with the first reaction in an electric furnace in the temperature range of 900-1275 K in 1 atm of Ar. The second reaction and related ones were performed in a solar furnace. Ti2O3(s) and higher TiNO2N-1(s) formed at temperatures between 1675 and 2175 K. These higher oxides also react with ZnO(s) to produce Zn(s). Some of our experiences and experimental techniques are described.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)179-190
Number of pages12
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1992

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