To facilitate the measurement of U-Th isotopic compositions suitable for high-precision and high-resolution 230Th dating of coral and speleothem carbonates, secondary electron multiplier (SEM) protocol techniques for multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) have been developed. The instrumental sensitivities are 1-2%, with a precision of ±1-2‰ (2σ) for abundance determination of 50-200fg 234U (1-4ng 238U) or 230Th. This method features chemistry refinements, improvements to procedural and instrumental blanks, spectral inference reductions, and careful consideration of non-linear SEM behavior. Measurement consistency of this MC-ICP-MS combined with previous mass spectrometric results on U-Th standards and a variety of carbonates demonstrates the validity of the SEM protocol method. For fossil corals, a routine U-Th isotopic determination at permil-level precision requires only 10-50mg of carbonate. As little as 200mg of young coral with an age of less than 20yr can be dated with a precision of ±0.3-0.8yr. About 20-200mg speleothem samples with sub-ppm-to-ppm U are required to earn a 5‰ precision on ages from 5 to 100kyr. Requirement of small sample size, 10-100s mg carbonate, can permit high temporal resolution to date speleothems with slow growth rates, i.e., 1-10mm/kyr. This high-precision 230Th chronology is critical to accurately establish age models, date events and splice geochemical proxy time series records from multiple samples in the fields of paleoclimatology and paleoceanography. The U-Th isotopic determination techniques described here can also be applied to different environmental samples, such as waters, rocks, and sediments.