High-Performance Skutterudite/Half-Heusler Cascaded Thermoelectric Module Using the Transient Liquid Phase Sintering Joining Technique

Wenjie Li, Gagan K. Goyal, David Stokes, Lavanya Raman, Subrata Ghosh, Shweta Sharma, Amin Nozariasbmarz, Na Liu, Saurabh Singh, Yu Zhang, Bed Poudel, Shashank Priya

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Thermoelectric (TE) materials have made rapid advancement in the past decade, paving the pathway toward the design of solid-state waste heat recovery systems. The next requirement in the design process is realization of full-scale multistage TE devices in the medium to high temperature range for enhanced power generation. Here, we report the design and manufacturing of full-scale skutterudite (SKD)/half-Heusler (hH) cascaded TE devices with 49-couple TE legs for each stage. The automated pick-and-place tool is employed for module fabrication providing overall high manufacturing process efficiency and repeatability. Optimized Ti/Ni/Au coating layers are developed for metallization as the diffusion barrier and electrode contact layers. The Cu-Sn transient liquid phase sintering technique is utilized for SKD and hH stages, which provides a high strength bonding and very low contact resistance. A remarkably high output power of 38.3 W with a device power density of 2.8 W·cm-2 at a temperature gradient of 513 °C is achieved. These results provide an avenue for widespread utilization of TE technology in waste heat recovery applications.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
StateAccepted/In press - 2022
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
W.L. acknowledges the financial support from the Army RIF program. D.S. acknowledges the support from the office of Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) under the project of Nano Engineered TE Systems. This effort (G.G. and A.N.), including the data analysis and interpretation, was supported as part of the center for 3D Ferroelectric Microelectronics, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences under Award Number DE-SC0021118. S.S. acknowledges the support from DARPA TE3 program. N.L. acknowledges the support from National Science Foundation (NSF) planning grant, TERRM. S.P. acknowledges the financial support through Office of Naval Research through grant number N00014-20-1-2602. Y.Z. acknowledges the support from Army SBIR program supported by NanoOhmics. L.R. acknowledges support from ARPA-E through the ULTERA program. S.S. acknowledges the support from the NSF CREST CREAM program through Norfolk State University. B.P. acknowledges the financial support from the National Science Foundation through I/UCRC Program.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 American Chemical Society. All rights reserved.


  • cascaded thermoelectric device
  • half-Heusler
  • module fabrication
  • power density
  • skutterudite
  • transient liquid phase sintering

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article


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