Objectives Islet transplantation is an emerging treatment option for type 1 diabetes but its application is limited by the shortage of human pancreas donors. Characterization of the N- and O-glycan surface antigens that vary between human and genetically engineered porcine islet donors could shed light on targets of antibody mediated rejection. Methods N- and O-glycans were isolated from human and adult porcine islets and analyzed using matrix-assisted laser-desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). Results A total of 57 porcine and 34 human N-glycans and 21 porcine and 14 human O-glycans were detected from cultured islets. Twenty-eight of which were detected only from porcine islets, which include novel xenoantigens such as high-mannose type N-glycans with core fucosylation and complex-type N-glycans with terminal neuraminic acid residues. Porcine islets have terminal N-glycolylneuraminic acid (NeuGc) residue in bi-antennary N-glycans and sialyl-Tn O-glycans. No galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-Gal) or Sda epitope were detected on any of the islets. Conclusions These results provide important insights into the potential antigenic differences of N- and O-glycan profiles between human and porcine islets. Glycan differences may identify novel gene targets for genetic engineering to generate superior porcine islet donors.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Funding: This research was supported by laboratory start-up funding from the University of Minnesota Department of Surgery and the National Institutes of Health grants 1S10OD018530 and P41GM10349010 at the Complex Carbohydrate Research Center. There was no additional external funding received for this study.