High frequency optoacoustic transducers for ultrasonic and photoacoustic imaging

Shai Ashkenazi, Yang Hou, Sheng Wen Huang, Takashi Buma, Matt O’Donnell

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

2 Scopus citations


The front end of all ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging systems includes an ultrasonic transducer to convert pressure waves into electric signals (and vice versa in the case of ultrasound imaging). Immediately after World War II, piezoelectric crystals (e.g., quartz) were the transducer materials in the first biomedical applications of ultrasound. They were quickly replaced with more efficient transducer materials developed during the war, the piezoelectric ceramics (e.g., lead zirconate titanate, or PZT) [1-3]. Ultrasound applications exploded in the 1970s when high efficiency PZT array transducers were developed for electronic, real-time scanning [4]. Although piezoelectric ceramic arrays have been constructed for a wide range of applications, and sophisticated manufacturing 224methods have been developed in the last two decades to produce very high yields, these transducers are still primarily manufactured using “dice and fill” technology [5], limiting their complexity. In particular, high-frequency operation is limited by the small required kerf widths, (several micrometers) electrical connections, and cross talk (both acoustical and electrical) between elements. While there has been significant progress [6-12], it is still extremely difficult to produce 1D piezoelectric arrays operating at 50 MHz or higher. High-frequency 2D arrays pose even greater challenges.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationPhotoacoustic Imaging and Spectroscopy
PublisherCRC Press
Number of pages16
ISBN (Electronic)9781420059922
ISBN (Print)9781420059915
StatePublished - Jan 1 2017

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


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