Purpose: During reactive hyperemia, the brachial artery in some individuals constricts prior to dilation. Our aim was to describe the frequency of high-flow-mediated constriction (H-FMC) in adults, and its relationship to body composition and biomarkers of cardiovascular and metabolic risk. Methods: Two hundred forty-six adults (124 male, 122 female; 36 ± 7 years old) were assessed for H-FMC via sonographic imaging of the brachial artery. Blood pressure, glucose, insulin, lipids, and body composition assessed via dual energy X-ray absorptiometry were collected. H-FMC was characterized as a 10-second average of maximal postocclusion constriction. Independent t test was used to compare H-FMC versus non-H-FMC individuals. Results: H-FMC was observed in approximately 69% of adult participants (54 obese, 57 overweight, and 59 normal weight). Total body mass (82.3 ± 17.5 versus 76.3 ± 16.3 kg, p = 0.012), fat mass (27.7 ± 11.5 versus 23.8 ± 10.5 kg, p = 0.012), body mass index (27.7 ± 4.9 versus 26.1 ± 5.0 kg/m2, p = 0.018), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (2.41 ± 1.03 versus 2.09 ± 0.72, p = 0.007) were higher in H-FMC than in non-H-FMC individuals. Flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) (6.12 ± 3.48 versus 8.09 ± 3.02%, p < 0.001) was lower in H-FMC subjects. However, there was no difference in brachial artery dilation between groups (7.57 ± 3.69 versus 8.09 ± 3.02%, p = 0.250) when H-FMC was added to FMD. Conclusions: Increased body mass, fat mass, and body mass index were associated with a greater H-FMC. When H-FMC was present, the FMD response to reactive hyperemia was significantly lower. Because H-FMC has been observed to negatively affect FMD response to reactive hyperemia, we suggest that H-FMC should be noted when analyzing and interpreting FMD data. H-FMC may be an ancillary measure of endothelial health.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
- flow-mediated dilation
- reactive hyperemia