High-Field Asymmetric Waveform Ion Mobility Spectrometry Analysis of Carcinogenic Aromatic Amines in Tobacco Smoke with an Orbitrap Tribrid Mass Spectrometer

Dmitri E Konorev, Medjda Bellamri, Chia Fang Wu, Ming Tsang Wu, Robert Turesky

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Smoking is a risk factor for bladder cancer (BC), although the specific chemicals responsible for BC remain uncertain. Considerable research has focused on aromatic amines (AAs), including o-toluidine (o-tol), o-anisidine (o-anis), 2-naphthylamine (2-NA), and 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP), which are linked to human BC based on elevated BC incidence in occupationally exposed factory workers. These AAs arise at nanogram levels per combusted cigarette. The unambiguous identification of AAs, particularly low-molecular-weight monocyclic AAs in tobacco smoke extracts, by liquid chromatography−mass spectrometry (LC−MS) is challenging due to their poor performance on reversed-phase columns and co-elution with isobaric interferences from the complex tobacco smoke matrix. We employed a tandem liquid-liquid and solid-phase extraction method to isolate AAs from the basic fraction of tobacco smoke condensate (TSC) and utilized high-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) coupled to high-resolution accurate mass (HRAM) Orbitrap LC−MS2 to assay AAs in TSC. The employment of FAIMS greatly reduced sample complexity by removing precursor co-isolation interfering species at the MS1 scan stage, resulting in dramatically improved signal-to-noise of the precursor ions and cleaner, high-quality MS2 spectra for unambiguous identification and quantification of AAs in TSC. We demonstrate the power of LC/FAIMS/MS2 by characterizing and quantifying two low-molecular-weight carcinogenic AAs, o-tol and o-anis, in TSC, using stable isotopically labeled internal standards. These results demonstrate the power of FAIMS in trace-level analyses of AA carcinogens in the complex tobacco smoke matrix.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1419-1426
Number of pages8
JournalChemical research in toxicology
Volume36
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 21 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 American Chemical Society.

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

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