Heterozygous De Novo and Inherited Mutations in the Smooth Muscle Actin (ACTG2) Gene Underlie Megacystis-Microcolon-Intestinal Hypoperistalsis Syndrome

Michael F. Wangler, Claudia Gonzaga-Jauregui, Tomasz Gambin, Samantha Penney, Timothy Moss, Atul Chopra, Frank J. Probst, Fan Xia, Yaping Yang, Steven Werlin, Ieva Eglite, Liene Kornejeva, Carlos A. Bacino, Dustin Baldridge, Jeff Neul, Efrat Lev Lehman, Austin Larson, Joke Beuten, Donna M. Muzny, Shalini JhangianiRichard A. Gibbs, James R. Lupski, Arthur Beaudet

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66 Scopus citations

Abstract

Megacystis-microcolon-intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome (MMIHS) is a rare disorder of enteric smooth muscle function affecting the intestine and bladder. Patients with this severe phenotype are dependent on total parenteral nutrition and urinary catheterization. The cause of this syndrome has remained a mystery since Berdon's initial description in 1976. No genes have been clearly linked to MMIHS. We used whole-exome sequencing for gene discovery followed by targeted Sanger sequencing in a cohort of patients with MMIHS and intestinal pseudo-obstruction. We identified heterozygous ACTG2 missense variants in 15 unrelated subjects, ten being apparent de novo mutations. Ten unique variants were detected, of which six affected CpG dinucleotides and resulted in missense mutations at arginine residues, perhaps related to biased usage of CpG containing codons within actin genes. We also found some of the same heterozygous mutations that we observed as apparent de novo mutations in MMIHS segregating in families with intestinal pseudo-obstruction, suggesting that ACTG2 is responsible for a spectrum of smooth muscle disease. ACTG2 encodes γ2 enteric actin and is the first gene to be clearly associated with MMIHS, suggesting an important role for contractile proteins in enteric smooth muscle disease.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere1004258
JournalPLoS genetics
Volume10
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2014

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    Wangler, M. F., Gonzaga-Jauregui, C., Gambin, T., Penney, S., Moss, T., Chopra, A., Probst, F. J., Xia, F., Yang, Y., Werlin, S., Eglite, I., Kornejeva, L., Bacino, C. A., Baldridge, D., Neul, J., Lehman, E. L., Larson, A., Beuten, J., Muzny, D. M., ... Beaudet, A. (2014). Heterozygous De Novo and Inherited Mutations in the Smooth Muscle Actin (ACTG2) Gene Underlie Megacystis-Microcolon-Intestinal Hypoperistalsis Syndrome. PLoS genetics, 10(3), [e1004258]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004258