Heterogeneity of Lipoprotein(a) Levels among Hispanic or Latino Individuals Residing in the US

Parag H. Joshi, Santica Marcovina, Kate Orroth, J. Antonio G. López, Shia T. Kent, Robert Kaplan, Katrina Swett, Daniela Sotres-Alvarez, Bharat Thyagarajan, Leandro Slipczuk, Tamar Sofer, Martha L. Daviglus, Gregory A. Talavera, Neil Schneiderman, Carlos J. Rodriguez

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Importance: Lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]) is a genetically determined risk-enhancing factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). The Lp(a) distribution among the diverse Hispanic or Latino community residing in the US has not been previously described, to the authors' knowledge. Objective: To determine the distribution of Lp(a) levels across a large cohort of diverse Hispanic or Latino adults living in the US and by key demographic groups. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) is a prospective, population-based, cohort study of diverse Hispanic or Latino adults living in the US. At screening, participants aged 18 to 74 years were recruited between 2008 and 2011 from 4 US metropolitan areas (Bronx, New York; Chicago, Illinois; Miami, Florida; San Diego, California). HCHS/SOL included 16415 noninstitutionalized adults recruited through probability sampling of randomly selected households. The study population represents Hispanic or Latino participants from diverse self-identified geographic and cultural backgrounds: Central American, Cuban, Dominican, Mexican, Puerto Rican, and South American. This study evaluated a subset of HCHS/SOL participants who underwent Lp(a) measurement. Sampling weights and surveys methods were used to account for HCHS/SOL sampling design. Data for this study were analyzed from April 2021 to April 2023. Exposure: Lp(a) molar concentration was measured by a particle-enhanced turbidimetric assay with minimized sensitivity to apolipoprotein(a) size variation. Main Outcome and Measure: Lp(a) quintiles were compared using analysis of variance among key demographic groups, including self-identified Hispanic or Latino background. Median percentage genetic ancestry (Amerindian, European, West African) were compared across Lp(a) quintiles. Results: Lp(a) molar concentration was measured in 16117 participants (mean [SD] age, 41 [14.8] years; 9680 female [52%]; 1704 Central American [7.7%], 2313 Cuban [21.1%], 1436 Dominican [10.3%], 6395 Mexican [39.1%], 2652 Puerto Rican [16.6%], 1051 South American [5.1%]). Median (IQR) Lp(a) level was 19.7 (7.4-59.7) nmol/L. Across Hispanic or Latino background groups, there was significant heterogeneity in median Lp(a) levels ranging from 12 to 41 nmol/L in those reporting a Mexican vs Dominican background. Median (IQR) West African genetic ancestry was lowest in the first quintile of Lp(a) level and highest in the fifth quintile (5.5% [3.4%-12.9%] and 12.1% [5.0%-32.5%]; respectively; P <.001), whereas the converse was seen for Amerindian ancestry (32.8% [9.9%-53.2%] and 10.7% [4.9%-30.7%], respectively; P <.001). Conclusions and Relevance: Results of this cohort study suggest that differences in Lp(a) level distribution across the diverse US Hispanic or Latino population may carry important implications for the use of Lp(a) level in ASCVD risk assessment for this group. Cardiovascular outcomes data are needed to better understand the clinical impact of differences in Lp(a) levels by Hispanic or Latino background..

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)691-696
Number of pages6
JournalJAMA cardiology
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 12 2023

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© 2023 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't


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