Heritability of teat-end shape and the relationship of teat-end shape with somatic cell score for an experimental herd of cows

M. A. Chrystal, A. J. Seykora, L. B. Hansen, A. E. Freeman, D. H. Kelley, M. H. Healey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Scopus citations


Teat-end shapes were categorized for 1443 Holstein cows with 3582 lactations, in the Iowa State University herd at Ankeny, approximately 40 d postpartum between 1970 and 1995. Frequencies of teat-end shapes were as follows: round, 52.2%; prolapsed, 0.8%; flat, 14.2%; plate, 3.4%; funnel, 8.9%; and mixed, 20.5%. Cows were coded as mixed if all four teat-end shapes were not the same. Heritability estimates were obtained with an animal model with pedigrees traced back to registration numbers roughly conforming to birth year 1955. The heritability estimates for first, second, and third and later lactations were 34, 21, and 13%, respectively. Lactation averages for linear somatic cell scores were adjusted for days in milk, and month and age at calving, and were available for 255 cows with 431 lactations categorized from 1992 to 1995. Frequencies of teat-end shape on the 255 cows were as follows: round, 58%; prolapsed, 3%; flat, 11%; plate, 2%; funnel, 6%; and mixed, 20%. Least-squares means of somatic cell score for categories of teat-end shape were computed from a mixed model that included year, parity, and teat-end shape as fixed effects and cow as a random effect. Teat-end shape did not significantly affect somatic cell score.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2549-2554
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Dairy Science
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2001

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Received May 25, 2000. Accepted June 8, 2001. 1Contribution Number 981163502 Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station based on research supported by the station. 2Work was conducted as part of Cooperative Regional Project S-284—Genetic Enhancement of Health and Survival for Dairy Cattle.

Copyright 2017 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.


  • Heritability
  • Somatic cell score
  • Teat-end shape

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