Hepatocellular carcinoma in South America: Evaluation of risk factors, demographics and therapy

Jose D. Debes, Aaron J. Chan, Domingo Balderramo, Luciana Kikuchi, Esteban Gonzalez Ballerga, Jhon E. Prieto, Monica Tapias, Victor Idrovo, Milagros B. Davalos, Fernando Cairo, Fernando J. Barreyro, Sebastian Paredes, Nelia Hernandez, Karla Avendaño, Javier Diaz Ferrer, Ju Dong Yang, Enrique Carrera, Jairo A. Garcia, Angelo Z. Mattos, Bruno S. HirschPablo T. Gonçalves, Flair J. Carrilho, Lewis R. Roberts

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

61 Scopus citations


Background & Aims: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Most studies addressing the epidemiology of HCC originate from developed countries. This study reports the preliminary findings of a multinational approach to characterize HCC in South America. Methods: We evaluated 1336 HCC patients seen at 14 centres in six South American countries using a retrospective study design with participating centres completing a template chart of patient characteristics. The diagnosis of HCC was made radiographically or histologically for all cases according to institutional standards. Methodology of surveillance for each centre was following AASLD or EASL recommendations. Results: Sixty-eight percent of individuals were male with a median age of 64 years at time of diagnosis. The most common risk factor for HCC was hepatitis C infection (HCV, 48%), followed by alcoholic cirrhosis (22%), Hepatitis B infection (HBV, 14%) and NAFLD (9%). We found that among individuals with HBV-related HCC, 38% were diagnosed before age 50. The most commonly provided therapy was transarterial chemoembolization (35% of HCCs) with few individuals being considered for liver transplant (<20%). Only 47% of HCCs were diagnosed during surveillance, and there was no difference in age of diagnosis between those diagnosed incidentally vs by surveillance. Nonetheless, being diagnosed during surveillance was associated with improved overall survival (P =.01). Conclusions: Our study represents the largest cohort to date reporting characteristics and outcomes of HCC across South America. We found an important number of HCCs diagnosed outside of surveillance programmes, with associated increased mortality in those patients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)136-143
Number of pages8
JournalLiver International
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2018

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


  • South America
  • demographics
  • hepatocellular carcinoma
  • risk factors


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