Background. We compared survival among patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) with that among patients infected solely with HIV. Methods. Descriptive, bivariate, and survival analyses were conducted using data for all HIV-positive patients who were seen during the period of January 1997 through May 2001 in the HIV Atlanta VA Cohort Study (HAVACS) and who had been tested for HCV antibody since 1992 (n = 970). Results. The prevalence of HCV coinfection was 31.6%, and coinfected patients were significantly more likely to be older, black, and injection drug users. In multivariate analysis, the duration of survival from the time of diagnosis of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) was significantly shortened for HIV-HCV-coinfected patients (hazard ratio [HR], 1.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09-3.10), as was time from HIV diagnosis to death (HR, 2.47; 95% CI, 1.26-4.82). Recovery of CD4+ cell count from the time of initiation of HAART did not differ significantly by coinfection status. Conclusions. HCV coinfection is common in this HIV-infected population and negatively affects survival from the time of both HIV and AIDS diagnoses, although this is apparently not associated with a difference in CD4+ cell recovery while receiving HAART. These findings differ from those of a previous study that was conducted in this cohort in the pre-HAART era, which found no association between HIV-HCV coinfection and HIV disease progression.