Hepatitis b-related hepatocellular carcinoma: Surveillance strategy directed by immune-epidemiology

Chimaobi M. Anugwom, Manon Allaire, Sheikh Mohammad Fazle Akbar, Amir Sultan, Steven Bollipo, Angelo Z. Mattos, Jose D. Debes

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


Hepatitis B infection (HBV) is one of the most common causes of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) worldwide. The age of occurrence, prognosis and incidence vary dramatically depending on the region of the world. This geographic variation is largely dependent on the contrasting incidence of HBV, age of transmission of the virus, the timing of integration into the human genome, and different HBV genotypes, as well as environmental factors. It results in a wide difference in viral interaction with the immune system, genomic modulation and the consequent development of HCC in an individual. In this review, we describe many factors implicated in HCC development, provide insight regarding at-risk populations and explain societal recommendations for HCC surveillance in persons living with HBV in different continents of the world.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number23
JournalHepatoma Research
StatePublished - Mar 26 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, Harold Amos Medical Faculty Development Program, NIH-NCI R21 CA215883-01A1 and University of Minnesota AIRP grant, all to JDD.

Publisher Copyright:
© The Author(s) 2021.


  • Continent
  • HBV
  • HCC
  • Risk


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