Celiac disease, an autoimmune disease once thought to be uncommon, is now being increasingly identified. Our improved diagnostic modalities have allowed us to diagnose more and more patients with atypical symptoms who improve on gluten-free diet (GFD). We discuss here the latest findings regarding the various hematological manifestations of celiac disease and their management. Anemia remains the most common hematological manifestation of celiac disease due to many mechanisms, and can be the sole presenting symptom. Other manifestations include thrombocytosis and thrombocythemia, leukopenia, thromboembolism, increased bleeding tendency, IgA deficiency, splenic dysfunction, and lymphoma. The diagnosis of celiac disease should always be kept in mind when a patient presents with unexplained and isolated hematological finding. Once diagnosed, patients should adhere to GFD and be educated about the potential complications of this disease. We herein present an algorithm for adequate management and follow-up.
- Celiac disease