Batches (30-L) of first-milking bovine colostrum, inoculated with Mycoplasma bovis (108 cfu/mL), Listeria monocytogenes (106 cfu/mL), Escherichia coli O157:H7 (106 cfu/mL), Salmonella enteritidis (106 cfu/mL), and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map; 103 cfu/mL), were heat-treated at 60°C for 120 min in a commercial on-farm batch pasteurizer system. Duplicate 50-mL subsamples of colostrum were collected at 15-min intervals throughout the heat-treatment process for the purpose of bacterial culture and for measurement of IgG concentration (mg/mL) and antibody activity [log2(bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 serum neutralization titer)]. Four replicate batches of colostrum were run for each of the 5 pathogens studied. There was no effect of heating moderate- to high-quality colostrum at 60°C for at least 120 min on mean IgG concentration (pre = 60.5 mg/mL; post = 59.1 mg/mL). Similarly, there was no effect of heat-treatment on the mean log2 bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 serum neutralization titer (pre = 12.3; post = 12.0). Viable M. bovis, L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7, and S. enteritidis added to colostrum could not be detected after the colostrum was heat-treated at 60°C for 30 min. Average bacteria counts showed that Mop was not detected when batches were heated at 60°C for 60 min. Although the authors believe that heat-treating colostrum at 60°C for 60 min should be sufficient to eliminate Map from colostrum in most situations, further research is needed to determine whether these findings may be replicated, given that variability was observed in Map culture results.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We thank USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service–Veterinary Services and the University of Minnesota Merck–Merial Summer Scholars Program for their financial support of this research.