Heat Transfer Analysis and Design for Bulk Crystal Growth: Perspectives on the Bridgman Method

Jeffrey J. Derby, Andrew Yeckel

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

22 Scopus citations


Heat transfer is perhaps the most important element in the design and operation of melt crystal growth processes. This chapter presents a primer on heat transfer fundamentals, followed by a more focused discussion of specific heat transfer interactions during melt crystal growth. To provide motivation and context for this discussion, the classical Bridgman crystal growth method is reviewed via historical perspectives of practice and theory. Finally, a research vignette is presented on developments to control the shape of the solid-liquid interface via heat transfer engineering during the Bridgman growth of cadmium zinc telluride. It is argued that the future development of melt crystal growth will rely on fundamental advances in the understanding of growth mechanisms coupled with skillful application of powerful computational models for process analysis and design.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationHandbook of Crystal Growth
Subtitle of host publicationBulk Crystal Growth: Second Edition
PublisherElsevier Inc.
Number of pages51
ISBN (Electronic)9780444633064
ISBN (Print)9780444633033
StatePublished - 2015

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The author would like to acknowledge prior and current support of many organizations including the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, the Graduate School of the University of Minnesota, the Israeli-US Binational Science Foundation, the Minnesota Supercomputer Institute, the Petroleum Research Fund, the United States Department of Energy, the United States Department of Homeland Security, the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and the United States National Science Foundation. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the position or policy of the United States Government, and no official endorsement should be inferred. The authors would like to acknowledge the significant input from prior analyses conducted by David Gasperino, Satheesh Kuppurao, and Nan Zhang and the seminal experimental work of Ernesto Diéguez and his colleagues, particularly Jerome Crocco, that were highlighted in the research vignette. Finally, JJD would like to express his supreme gratitude to the many talented graduate students with whom he has enjoyed working over the years.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2015, 1993 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


  • Bridgman method
  • Cold finger
  • Conduction
  • Convection
  • Furnace profile design contents
  • Heat transfer
  • Interface shape
  • Radiation
  • Solidification kinetics


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