Healthy dietary patterns for preventing cardiometabolic disease: The role of plant-based foods and animal products

Kristina S. Petersen, Michael R. Flock, Chesney K. Richter, Ratna Mukherjea, Joanne L Slavin, Penny M. Kris-Etherton

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

9 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Diets rich in plant foods are increasingly recommended to lower the risk of cardiometabolic diseases because of strong evidence that fruit, vegetables, legumes, whole grains, nuts, and seeds are protective. Although some animal products, such as unprocessed lean red meat, poultry, eggs, and dairy products, are recommended in dietary patterns to prevent cardiometabolic diseases, many health professionals advocate for exclusively plant-based dietary patterns. The aim of this article was to review recent evidence on the relative contributions of plant-based foods and animal products to a healthy dietary pattern. Secondary aims were to discuss current consumption patterns and adherence to dietary recommendations. Epidemiologic evidence suggests that a higher intake of plant-based foods is associated with a lower risk of cardiometabolic disease, whereas a higher meat intake increases the risk of cardiometabolic disease and the replacement of small quantities of animal protein with plant protein is associated with lower risk. Randomized controlled studies show that nutrient-dense diets containing animal protein, including some unprocessed lean meats, improve cardiovascular disease risk factors. Therefore, it is likely that the consumption of animal products, at recommended amounts, in the context of a dietary pattern that meets recommendations for fruit, vegetables, whole grains, nuts, seeds, and legumes, and does not exceed recommendations for added sugar, sodium, and saturated fat, may not increase cardiometabolic risk. Currently, adherence to these recommendations is suboptimal. Therefore, rather than debating the merits of healthy dietary patterns that are exclusively plant-based or that include animal sources in recommended amounts, the focus should be on improving overall eating patterns to align with dietary guidelines. Registered Dietitian/Nutritionists (RDNs) have the requisite nutrition expertise to facilitate change at the individual and population levels to promote adherence to healthy dietary patterns. Importantly, advocacy activities are urgently needed to create a healthier food environment, and all health professionals, including RDNs, must play a role.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere001289
JournalCurrent Developments in Nutrition
Volume1
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2018

Fingerprint

plant-based foods
Edible Plants
animal products
eating habits
foods
Nutritionists
Nuts
nutritionists
whole grain foods
Fabaceae
animal proteins
Vegetables
Meat
dietitians
health care workers
Fruit
Seeds
nuts
Poultry Products
Diet

Keywords

  • Animal protein
  • Cardiometabolic
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Diabetes
  • Plant-based diets

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article
  • Review

Cite this

Healthy dietary patterns for preventing cardiometabolic disease : The role of plant-based foods and animal products. / Petersen, Kristina S.; Flock, Michael R.; Richter, Chesney K.; Mukherjea, Ratna; Slavin, Joanne L; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.

In: Current Developments in Nutrition, Vol. 1, No. 12, e001289, 01.01.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Petersen, Kristina S. ; Flock, Michael R. ; Richter, Chesney K. ; Mukherjea, Ratna ; Slavin, Joanne L ; Kris-Etherton, Penny M. / Healthy dietary patterns for preventing cardiometabolic disease : The role of plant-based foods and animal products. In: Current Developments in Nutrition. 2018 ; Vol. 1, No. 12.
@article{fbcd2e700115495e9edf83e237e70280,
title = "Healthy dietary patterns for preventing cardiometabolic disease: The role of plant-based foods and animal products",
abstract = "Diets rich in plant foods are increasingly recommended to lower the risk of cardiometabolic diseases because of strong evidence that fruit, vegetables, legumes, whole grains, nuts, and seeds are protective. Although some animal products, such as unprocessed lean red meat, poultry, eggs, and dairy products, are recommended in dietary patterns to prevent cardiometabolic diseases, many health professionals advocate for exclusively plant-based dietary patterns. The aim of this article was to review recent evidence on the relative contributions of plant-based foods and animal products to a healthy dietary pattern. Secondary aims were to discuss current consumption patterns and adherence to dietary recommendations. Epidemiologic evidence suggests that a higher intake of plant-based foods is associated with a lower risk of cardiometabolic disease, whereas a higher meat intake increases the risk of cardiometabolic disease and the replacement of small quantities of animal protein with plant protein is associated with lower risk. Randomized controlled studies show that nutrient-dense diets containing animal protein, including some unprocessed lean meats, improve cardiovascular disease risk factors. Therefore, it is likely that the consumption of animal products, at recommended amounts, in the context of a dietary pattern that meets recommendations for fruit, vegetables, whole grains, nuts, seeds, and legumes, and does not exceed recommendations for added sugar, sodium, and saturated fat, may not increase cardiometabolic risk. Currently, adherence to these recommendations is suboptimal. Therefore, rather than debating the merits of healthy dietary patterns that are exclusively plant-based or that include animal sources in recommended amounts, the focus should be on improving overall eating patterns to align with dietary guidelines. Registered Dietitian/Nutritionists (RDNs) have the requisite nutrition expertise to facilitate change at the individual and population levels to promote adherence to healthy dietary patterns. Importantly, advocacy activities are urgently needed to create a healthier food environment, and all health professionals, including RDNs, must play a role.",
keywords = "Animal protein, Cardiometabolic, Cardiovascular disease, Diabetes, Plant-based diets",
author = "Petersen, {Kristina S.} and Flock, {Michael R.} and Richter, {Chesney K.} and Ratna Mukherjea and Slavin, {Joanne L} and Kris-Etherton, {Penny M.}",
year = "2018",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.3945/cdn.117.001289",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "1",
journal = "Current Developments in Nutrition",
issn = "2475-2991",
publisher = "Oxford University Press",
number = "12",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Healthy dietary patterns for preventing cardiometabolic disease

T2 - The role of plant-based foods and animal products

AU - Petersen, Kristina S.

AU - Flock, Michael R.

AU - Richter, Chesney K.

AU - Mukherjea, Ratna

AU - Slavin, Joanne L

AU - Kris-Etherton, Penny M.

PY - 2018/1/1

Y1 - 2018/1/1

N2 - Diets rich in plant foods are increasingly recommended to lower the risk of cardiometabolic diseases because of strong evidence that fruit, vegetables, legumes, whole grains, nuts, and seeds are protective. Although some animal products, such as unprocessed lean red meat, poultry, eggs, and dairy products, are recommended in dietary patterns to prevent cardiometabolic diseases, many health professionals advocate for exclusively plant-based dietary patterns. The aim of this article was to review recent evidence on the relative contributions of plant-based foods and animal products to a healthy dietary pattern. Secondary aims were to discuss current consumption patterns and adherence to dietary recommendations. Epidemiologic evidence suggests that a higher intake of plant-based foods is associated with a lower risk of cardiometabolic disease, whereas a higher meat intake increases the risk of cardiometabolic disease and the replacement of small quantities of animal protein with plant protein is associated with lower risk. Randomized controlled studies show that nutrient-dense diets containing animal protein, including some unprocessed lean meats, improve cardiovascular disease risk factors. Therefore, it is likely that the consumption of animal products, at recommended amounts, in the context of a dietary pattern that meets recommendations for fruit, vegetables, whole grains, nuts, seeds, and legumes, and does not exceed recommendations for added sugar, sodium, and saturated fat, may not increase cardiometabolic risk. Currently, adherence to these recommendations is suboptimal. Therefore, rather than debating the merits of healthy dietary patterns that are exclusively plant-based or that include animal sources in recommended amounts, the focus should be on improving overall eating patterns to align with dietary guidelines. Registered Dietitian/Nutritionists (RDNs) have the requisite nutrition expertise to facilitate change at the individual and population levels to promote adherence to healthy dietary patterns. Importantly, advocacy activities are urgently needed to create a healthier food environment, and all health professionals, including RDNs, must play a role.

AB - Diets rich in plant foods are increasingly recommended to lower the risk of cardiometabolic diseases because of strong evidence that fruit, vegetables, legumes, whole grains, nuts, and seeds are protective. Although some animal products, such as unprocessed lean red meat, poultry, eggs, and dairy products, are recommended in dietary patterns to prevent cardiometabolic diseases, many health professionals advocate for exclusively plant-based dietary patterns. The aim of this article was to review recent evidence on the relative contributions of plant-based foods and animal products to a healthy dietary pattern. Secondary aims were to discuss current consumption patterns and adherence to dietary recommendations. Epidemiologic evidence suggests that a higher intake of plant-based foods is associated with a lower risk of cardiometabolic disease, whereas a higher meat intake increases the risk of cardiometabolic disease and the replacement of small quantities of animal protein with plant protein is associated with lower risk. Randomized controlled studies show that nutrient-dense diets containing animal protein, including some unprocessed lean meats, improve cardiovascular disease risk factors. Therefore, it is likely that the consumption of animal products, at recommended amounts, in the context of a dietary pattern that meets recommendations for fruit, vegetables, whole grains, nuts, seeds, and legumes, and does not exceed recommendations for added sugar, sodium, and saturated fat, may not increase cardiometabolic risk. Currently, adherence to these recommendations is suboptimal. Therefore, rather than debating the merits of healthy dietary patterns that are exclusively plant-based or that include animal sources in recommended amounts, the focus should be on improving overall eating patterns to align with dietary guidelines. Registered Dietitian/Nutritionists (RDNs) have the requisite nutrition expertise to facilitate change at the individual and population levels to promote adherence to healthy dietary patterns. Importantly, advocacy activities are urgently needed to create a healthier food environment, and all health professionals, including RDNs, must play a role.

KW - Animal protein

KW - Cardiometabolic

KW - Cardiovascular disease

KW - Diabetes

KW - Plant-based diets

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85052333398&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85052333398&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.3945/cdn.117.001289

DO - 10.3945/cdn.117.001289

M3 - Review article

C2 - 29955690

AN - SCOPUS:85052333398

VL - 1

JO - Current Developments in Nutrition

JF - Current Developments in Nutrition

SN - 2475-2991

IS - 12

M1 - e001289

ER -