Healthcare provider challenges to early detection of cervical cancer at primary healthcare level in Rwanda

Charles Nkurunziza, Rahel Ghebre, Urania Magriples, Diomede Ntasumbumuyange, Lisa Bazzett-Matabele

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3 Scopus citations


Our objective was to assess the health facility related factors that cause delays in cervical cancer diagnosis at a primary healthcare level in Rwanda. Healthcare providers in outpatient clinics at 10 health centers in Kigali city and the Eastern province of Rwanda were surveyed. Eighty-five healthcare providers participated; 83.5% were nurses and the remainder were midwives. Only 15 (17.6%) reported prior training on visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) cervical cancer screening, and they were distributed among 6 of the 10 health centers surveyed. However, 76.5% of respondents reported that at least one person was trained in VIA at their health center. The basic equipment necessary for cervical cancer evaluation was reported to be generally available. Overall, only 31.8% of participants had good basic knowledge level on cervical cancer screening. No association was found between respondents’ knowledge about cervical cancer screening and profession, education level, work experience or reported prior training on VIA. There is a gap in the number of primary healthcare providers with the skills to perform pelvic exam and VIA cervical cancer screening at health centers in Rwanda. As health centers are the first point of contact for patients with the healthcare system, there is a need to improve their knowledge and skills in performing cervical cancer screening and detection.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number100810
JournalGynecologic Oncology Reports
StatePublished - Aug 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 The Authors


  • Cervical cancer
  • Early detection
  • Global health
  • Primary healthcare
  • Rwanda


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