OBJECTIVE:To evaluate health care provider adherence to the surgical protocol endorsed by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists at the time of risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy and compare adherence between gynecologic oncologists and obstetrician-gynecologists (ob-gyns).METHODS:In this multicenter retrospective cohort study, women were included if they had a pathogenic BRCA mutation and underwent risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy between 2011 and 2017. Adherence was defined as completing all of the following: collection of washings, complete resection of the fallopian tube, and performing the Sectioning and Extensively Examining the Fimbriated End (SEE-FIM) pathologic protocol.RESULTS:Of 290 patients who met inclusion criteria, 160 patients were treated by 18 gynecologic oncologists and 130 patients by 75 ob-gyns. Surgery was performed at 10 different hospitals throughout a single metropolitan area. Demographic and clinical characteristics were similar between groups. Overall, 199 cases (69%) were adherent to the surgical protocol. Gynecologic oncologists were more than twice as likely to fully adhere to the full surgical protocol as ob-gyns (91% vs 41%, P<.01). Specifically, gynecologic oncologists were more likely to resect the entire tube (99% vs 95%, P=.03), to have followed the SEE-FIM protocol (98% vs 82%, P<.01), and collect washings (94% vs 49%, P<.01). Complication rates did not differ between groups. Occult neoplasia was diagnosed in 11 patients (3.8%). The incidence of occult neoplasia was 6.3% in gynecologic oncology patients and 0.8% in obstetrics and gynecology patients (P=.03).CONCLUSION:Despite clear surgical guidelines, only two thirds of all health care providers were fully adherent to guidelines. Gynecologic oncologists were more likely to follow surgical guidelines compared with general ob-gyns and more likely to diagnose occult neoplasia despite similar patient populations. Rates of risk-reducing surgery will likely continue to increase as genetic testing becomes more widespread, highlighting the importance of health care provider education for this procedure. Centralized care or referral to subspecialists for risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy may be warranted.