Hard and soft micromachining for BioMEMS: Review of techniques and examples of applications in microfluidics and drug delivery

Babak Ziaie, Antonio Baldi, Ming Lei, Yuandong Gu, Ronald A. Siegel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

387 Scopus citations

Abstract

Recent development in microfabrication (micromachining, microelectromechanical systems, MEMS) permits the integration of hard and soft structures, and enables the design of controllable microfluidic systems, which may be applied to drug delivery. In this paper, we present a tutorial review of both classical "hard" and more recent "soft" micromachining techniques. We then provide examples where these techniques are combined to produce hydrogel-based microfluidic control systems. The most complex of these systems utilizes a very small hydrogel based on phenylboronic acid to control the flow of an insulin solution in response to changes in glucose concentration.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)145-172
Number of pages28
JournalAdvanced Drug Delivery Reviews
Volume56
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 10 2004

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was funded in part by grant DAMD17-02-1-0722 from the U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, and by grants from the Drug Delivery Center and Biomedical Engineering Institute at the University of Minnesota. We thank Paul Loftness, Sarah Hruby, Hao Hou, and David Beebe for their contributions and input.

Keywords

  • Closed-loop insulin delivery
  • Glucose-sensitive
  • Hydrogels
  • MEMS
  • Microfluidics
  • Phenylboronic acid

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