Guanine-adenine DNA cross-linking by 1,2,3,4-diepoxybutane: Potential basis for biological activity

Soobong Park, Jacob Hodge, Christopher Anderson, Natalia Y Tretyakova

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1,2,3,4-Diepoxybutane (DEB) is a prominent carcinogenic metabolite of 1,3-butadiene (1,3-BD), an important industrial chemical and an environmental pollutant found in cigarette smoke and automobile exhaust. DEB is capable of inducing a variety of genotoxic effects, including point mutations, large deletions, and chromosomal aberrations. The mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of DEB are thought to result from its ability to form bifunctional DNA-DNA adducts by sequentially alkylating two nucleobases within the DNA double helix. We recently reported that DEB-induced DNA-DNA cross-linking leads to the formation of 1,4-bis-(guan-7-yl)-2,3-butanediol (bis-N7G-BD) adducts [Park, S., and Tretyakova, N. (2004) Structural characterization of the major DNA-DNA cross-link of 1,2,3,4-diepoxybutane. Chem. Res. Toxicol. 17 (2), 129-136]. However, guanine-guanine cross-linking by DEB cannot explain the development of A:T base pair mutations following exposure to DEB and 1,3-BD. In the present work, four asymmetrical DNA-DNA cross-links involving both adenine and guanine nucleobases were identified in double-stranded DNA treated with racemic DEB. These novel lesions were assigned the structures of 1-(aden-1-yl)-4-(guan-7-yl)- 2,3-butanediol (N1A-N7G-BD), 1-(aden-3-yl)-4-(guan-7-yl)-2,3-butanediol (N3A-N7G-BD), 1-(aden-7-yl)-4-(guan-7-yl)-2,3-butanediol (N7A-N7G-BD), and 1-(aden-N6-yl)-4-(guan-7-yl)-2,3-butanediol (N6A-N7G-BD), based on the comparison of their MS/MS spectra, HPLC retention times, and UV spectra with those of the corresponding authentic standards prepared independently. Although guanine-adenine lesions are ∼10 times less abundant in DEB-treated double-stranded DNA than the corresponding bis-N7G cross-links, N1A-N7G-BD and N6A-N7G-BD are more hydrolytically stable and, if formed in vivo, may accumulate in target tissues. HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of guanine-adenine DEB cross-links induced in synthetic DNA duplexes 5′-(GGT)5, 5′-(GT)7G, and 5′-(GAA) 5 (+-strand) demonstrate that G-A cross-linking by DEB produces primarily 1,3-interstrand N1A-N7G lesions. The formation of bifunctional guanine-adenine adducts is likely to contribute to AT base pair substitutions and deletion mutations following DEB exposure.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1638-1651
Number of pages14
JournalChemical research in toxicology
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2004


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