Growth and Nutrient Accumulation and Distribution in Wild Rice

J. Grava, K. A. Raisanen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The dry matter, N, P and K accumulation, and distribution pattern of wild rice (Zizania aquatica L.) throughout its growth cycle was investigated. This study utilized a portion of an NP factorial experiment conducted with K2 cultivar on peat soil (Terric Borohemist) in a grower's paddy in north-central Minnesota [USA]. Plant samples were collected from six 3.7 .times. 3.7-m areas receiving 40, 19.7 and 55.7 kg/ha of N, P and K, respectively. Dry matter accumulation and nutrient element concentration in various aboveground plant parts were determined at 10 growth stages. At the jointing stage, the 2nd leaf was separated and analyzed for N, P and K. Although N, P and K uptake preceded dry matter production, the accumulation patterns were similar. Accumulation rates were slow during the vegetative development phase, e.g., first 50 days after emergence. Following the jointing stage, during a 30 day period of rapid growth, the plant accumulated over half of its dry matter and plant nutrients. Accumulation of plant nutrients continued at a relatively rapid rate until maturity. The effectiveness of topdress N application at jointing is partially explained by data indicating that wild rice accumulated 70% of its total N during flowering and grain formation. The 2nd leaf at jointing contained 3.83% N, 0.55% P and 3.73% K. A single plant produced 30 g of total dry matter and took up 300 mg N, 110 mg P and 740 mg of K. The grain contained 38, 22 and 3% of the total amount of N,P and K, respectively, taken up by the plant. Nearly 85% of total K accumulated in stems. In this study, wild rice produced nearly 11,800 kg/ha of dry matter and contained 120, 40 and 290 kg/ha of N, P and K, respectively. A major portion of nutrient elements was supplied by the soil.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1077-1081
Number of pages5
JournalAgronomy Journal
Issue number6
StatePublished - 1978


  • mineral nutrition
  • nutrients
  • plant nutrition
  • Development
  • Physiology
  • Minnesota
  • grain
  • Zizania aquatica
  • dry matter accumulation
  • plant composition
  • Metabolism
  • crop growth stage
  • Agronomy (Agriculture)
  • Nutrition
  • article


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