Recent developments in research and theory pertaining to fair employment concerns are reviewed for the period 1991-1996, with particular emphasis on Black/White issues. The period was marked by the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1991, the publication of The Bell Curve, renewed debate over the meaning of general cognitive ability, publication of the revised four-volume Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, and intense political and scientific interest in affirmative action. Fundamental issues were raised with regard to the substantive nature of g, the interpretation of group differences in cognitive ability, the effect of group differences on personnel decision making, and the efficacy of affirmative action. Each of these issues is examined in an attempt to identify the main points of consensus and disagreement and to identify how they are interrelated. Suggestions for additional research are incorporated within the text.