Most great ape genetic variation remains uncharacterized; however, its study is critical for understanding population history, recombination, selection and susceptibility to disease. Here we sequence to high coverage a total of 79 wild- and captive-born individuals representing all six great ape species and seven subspecies and report 88.8 million single nucleotide polymorphisms. Our analysis provides support for genetically distinct populations within each species, signals of gene flow, and the split of common chimpanzees into two distinct groups: Nigeria-Cameroon/western and central/eastern populations. We find extensive inbreeding in almost all wild populations, with eastern gorillas being the most extreme. Inferred effective population sizes have varied radically over time in different lineages and this appears to have a profound effect on the genetic diversity at, or close to, genes in almost all species. We discover and assign 1,982 loss-of-function variants throughout the human and great ape lineages, determining that the rate of gene loss has not been different in the human branch compared to other internal branches in the great ape phylogeny. This comprehensive catalogue of great ape genome diversity provides a framework for understanding evolution and a resource for more effective management of wild and captive great ape populations.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Acknowledgements We thank the following funding agencies: ERC Starting Grant (260372) to T.M.-B.; NIH grants HG002385 to E.E.E., R01_HG005226 to K.R.V., A.E.W., M.F.H., L.S. and J.D.W., GM100233 and NSF HOMINID grant 1032255 to D.R. and He.Li.;MICINN(Spain) BFU2011-28549 toT.M.-B.,BFU2010-19443toJa.Be.,Spanish Government and FEDER for grants BFU2009-13409-C02-02 and BFU2012-38236 to A.N. and J.P.-M., Direcció General de Recerca, Generalitat de Catalunya (Grup de Recerca Consolidat 2009 SGR 1101) to Ja.Be., D.C., A.N. and T.M.-B.; ERC Advanced Grant (233297) and Max Planck Society to S. Paabo; Danish Council for Independent Research Natural Sciences to H.S.; Spanish Grant (CGL-2010-20170) and Zoo de Barcelona (Beca PRIC) to A.R.-H.; EUPRIM-Net to BPRC; DP1ES022577-04 NIH grant to S.A.T.; NSF Grant 0755823 to M.K.G.; P.G. is supported by the G. Harold and Leila Y. Mathers Foundation. A.N. and T.M.-B. are ICREA Research Investigators (Institut Catalad’EstudisiRecercaAvancats delaGeneralitatdeCatalunya).J.P.-M.issupported by the Zoo de Barcelona and l’Ajuntament de Barcelona. P.H.S. is supported by an HHMI International Student Fellowship. E.E.E. is an investigator with the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. We are especially grateful to all those who generously provided the samples for the project: O. Thalmann and H. Siedel from Limbe Sanctuary; R. Garriga from Tacugama Sanctuary; W. Schempp (University of Freiburg), Burgers’ Zoo; Zoo of Antwerp; Wilhelma Zoo; Givskud Zoo; Ngamba Island Chimpanzee Sanctuary and Centre de Primatologie; Centre International de Recherches Médicales de Franceville; North Carolina Zoological Park; Zoo Atlanta; the Lincoln Park Zoo (Chicago); the Antwerp Zoo and the Limbe Wildlife Centre (Cameroon); D. Travis from University of Minnesota and M. Kinsel from University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign and S. Paabo and L. Vigilant, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. We thank T. Brown for revising the manuscript, L. Capilla and E. Eyras for technical support, and M. Dierssen for comments on genes expressed in the brain.