Graphene-based wireless bacteria detection on tooth enamel

Manu S. Mannoor, Hu Tao, Jefferson D. Clayton, Amartya Sengupta, David L. Kaplan, Rajesh R. Naik, Naveen Verma, Fiorenzo G. Omenetto, Michael C. McAlpine

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

799 Scopus citations


Direct interfacing of nanosensors onto biomaterials could impact health quality monitoring and adaptive threat detection. Graphene is capable of highly sensitive analyte detection due to its nanoscale nature. Here we show that graphene can be printed onto water-soluble silk. This in turn permits intimate biotransfer of graphene nanosensors onto biomaterials, including tooth enamel. The result is a fully biointerfaced sensing platform, which can be tuned to detect target analytes. For example, via self-assembly of antimicrobial peptides onto graphene, we show bioselective detection of bacteria at single-cell levels. Incorporation of a resonant coil eliminates the need for onboard power and external connections. Combining these elements yields two-tiered interfacing of peptideĝ€"graphene nanosensors with biomaterials. In particular, we demonstrate integration onto a tooth for remote monitoring of respiration and bacteria detection in saliva. Overall, this strategy of interfacing graphene nanosensors with biomaterials represents a versatile approach for ubiquitous detection of biochemical targets.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number763
JournalNature communications
StatePublished - 2012


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