Graphene-Base heterojunction transistor: An attractive device for terahertz operation

Valerio Di Lecce, Roberto Grassi, Antonio Gnudi, Elena Gnani, Susanna Reggiani, Giorgio Baccarani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

38 Scopus citations


For the first time, a simulation study is reported of a device formed by stacking an n+-Si layer (emitter), a monolayer graphene sheet (base), and a second n-Si layer (collector), operating as a graphene-base heterojunction transistor. The device differs from the recently proposed hot-electron graphene-base transistor (GBT), where graphene is sandwiched between the two dielectric layers, in the current flow being regulated mainly by thermionic emission over the potential-energy barrier, rather than by tunneling through the emitter-contact Schottky barrier. The simulations are based on a 1-D quantum transport model with the effective mass approximation and nonparabolic corrections. In addition to being much easier to fabricate compared with the GBT, the device is shown to be able to provide 104 ON/OFF current ratio, current densities well in excess of 0.1 Aμ m2 and cutoff frequencies well above 1 THz, together with an intrinsic dc small-signal voltage gain larger than 10. Even though the simulation model is somewhat idealized, since ballistic transport is assumed and Si-graphene interfaces are ideal, our results show that this device is a serious competitor for high-frequency RF applications.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number6645424
Pages (from-to)4263-4268
Number of pages6
JournalIEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2013


  • Cutoff frequency
  • Graphene
  • Graphene base
  • Simulation
  • Terahertz operation
  • transistor


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