Granulomatous-Lymphocytic Interstitial Lung Disease Mimicking Sarcoidosis

David M Perlman, Muthya Tejasvini Sudheendra, Emilian Racilla, Tadashi L Allen, Avni Joshi, Maneesh Bhargava

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Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is one of the most common primary immunodeficiency disorders characterized by hypogammaglobulinemia and inadequate antibody response to immunizations. The impaired antibody response occurs due to the failure of B cells to differentiate into plasma cells resulting in low immunoglobulins levels and increased frequency of infections. Granulomatous and Lymphocytic Interstitial Lung Disease (GLILD) is a non-infectious complication of CVID that is seen in 10-30% of cases. GLILD is a multisystem inflammatory disease involving the lungs, lymph node, liver, spleen and gastrointestinal tract that mimics sarcoidosis. This report describes a series of cases who presented with dyspnea, recurrent respiratory infections or autoimmunity and on further evaluation revealed features suggestive of GLILD. There is very limited understanding of GLILD in terms of clinical presentation, the histo-pathological logical findings, and the diagnostic criteria by itself are limited. A diagnosis of GLILD is established in cases of CVID when there is evidence of lymphoproliferation, cytopenia, autoimmune processes and a lung biopsy demonstrating lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia, follicular bronchiolitis, lymphoid hyperplasia, and/or non-necrotizing granulomas. We review the treatment strategies, including replacement of immunoglobulin and agents targeting B and T lymphocytes. Systematic characterization of GLILD cases and long term follow up studies are sorely needed to understand the natural history of GLILD.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)e2021025
JournalSarcoidosis, vasculitis, and diffuse lung diseases : official journal of WASOG
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2021

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  • Journal Article


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