In gravity-driven flows of different-sized (same density) particles, it is well known that larger particles tend to segregate upward (toward the free surface), and the smaller particles downward in the direction of gravity. Alternatively, when the particles are of the same size but different density, lighter particles tend to segregate upward and heavier particles, downward. When particles differ in both size and density, true of most mixtures of interest in industry and nature, the details are complicated and no rule based on gravity alone has captured the segregation behaviours. Gradients of granular temperature and kinetic stress (i.e., energy and stress associated with velocity fluctuations) offer alternative segregation driving forces, but have, until recently, been discounted as these dynamics are relatively small in dense flows. Recently, gradients in kinetic stress have been shown to play a significant role in segregating densely sheared particle mixtures, even where the kinetic stress is a relatively small percentage of the total stress. We review recent modelling advances accounting for this effect and validation in computational experiments. We show how this framework may be useful in capturing the complicated segregation phenomenology that emerges for dense sheared flows of particles different in both size and density.
- DEM simulations
- Mixture model