Catecholamines (CAs) and granin peptides are costored in dense-core vesicles within the chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla and in other endocrine organs and neurons. Granins play a major functional and structural role in chromaffin cells but are ubiquitous proteins, which are present also in secretory cells of the nervous, endocrine, and immune systems, where they regulate a number of cellular functions. Furthermore, recent studies also demonstrate that granin-derived peptides can functionally interact with CA to modulate key physiological functions such as lipolysis and blood pressure. In this chapter, we will provide a brief update on the interaction between CA and granins at the cellular and organ levels. We will first discuss recent data on the regulation of exocytosis of CA and peptides from the chromaffin cells by the sympathetic nervous system with a specific reference to the prominent role played by splanchnic nerve-derived pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP). Secondly, we will discuss the role of granins in the storage and regulation of exocytosis in large dense-core vesicles. Finally, we will provide an up-to-date review of the roles played by two granin-derived peptides, the chromogranin A-derived peptide catestatin and the VGF-derived peptide TLQP-21, on lipolysis and obesity. In conclusion, the knowledge gathered from recent findings on the role played by proteins/peptides in the sympathetic/target cell synapses, discussed in this chapter, would contribute to and provide novel mechanistic support for an increased appreciation of the physiological role of CA in human pathophysiology.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||21|
|Journal||Advances in Pharmacology|
|State||Published - 2013|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported in part by a MICINN Grant BFU2010-15822 and CONSOLIDER (CSD2008-00005) to RB; VA BLR&D Merit Review (5101BX000323) to SKM; and Minnesota Partnership for Biotechnology and Medical Genomics, Decade of Discovery in Diabetes Grant, and University of Minnesota Medical School to AB. ND is the recipient of an FPU fellowship from the Spanish Ministry of Education.
- Adipose tissue
- Chromogranin A
- Large dense-core vesicles