Gram-negative bacterial infections: Research priorities, accomplishments, and future directions of the Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group

Yohei Doi, Robert A. Bonomo, David C. Hooper, Keith S. Kaye, James R. Johnson, Cornelius J. Clancy, Joshua T. Thaden, Martin E. Stryjewski, David Van Duin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

82 Scopus citations


Antimicrobial resistance in pathogenic gram-negative bacteria is one of the most pressing challenges in the field of infectious diseases and is one of 4 key areas of unmet medical need identified by the Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group (ARLG). The mission of the Gram-Negative Committee is to advance our knowledge of these challenging infections and implement studies to improve patient outcomes. Studies have fallen primarily into 2 broad categories: prospective cohort studies and interventional trials. Among the observational studies, CRACKLE (Consortium on Resistance Against Carbapenems in Klebsiella pneumoniae and Other Enterobacteriaceae) has contributed seminal multicenter data describing risk factors and clinical outcomes of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) in sentinel US hospitals. Building on this success, CRACKLE II will expand the network to hospitals across the United States and Colombia. Similar protocols have been proposed to include Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (SNAP and POP studies). In addition, the CREST study (Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae in Solid Organ Transplant Patients) has provided pivotal data on extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae and CRE carriage among solid organ transplant recipients to inform management of this vulnerable patient population. Two clinical trials to define novel ways of using an existing antibiotic, fosfomycin, to treat ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae (one that has completed enrollment and the other in late protocol development) will determine the clinical efficacy of fosfomycin as step-down oral therapy to treat complicated urinary tract infections. Additional clinical studies and trials using immunotherapeutic or newly approved agents are also in the planning stage, with the main goals of generating actionable data that will inform clinical decision making and facilitate development of new treatment options for highly resistant gram-negative bacterial infections.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)S30-S35
JournalClinical Infectious Diseases
StatePublished - 2017

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Financial support. This article was supported by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases of the NIH (award number UM1AI104681).

Publisher Copyright:
© The Author 2017.


  • Antimicrobial resistance
  • Clinical trials
  • Gram-negative
  • Interventional studies
  • Observational studies


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