Gradual incorporation of whole-grain flour into grain-based products

Len Marquart, Hing Wan Chan, Mary Orsted, Kristen A. Schmitz, Elizabeth A. Arndt, David R. Jacobs

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Industry, academia, and government agencies are exploring methods to increase whole-grain intake in the American diet. The gradual inclusion of whole-grain flour in a wide variety of grain-based foods in a way that maintains taste, convenience, and palatability could be a first transition step toward increasing whole-grain consumption while maintaining a product that is acceptable to consumers. This modeling study assesses the impact of incorporating various amounts of whole-grain flour by modifying formulations for 30 individual grain foods within 10 larger categories. Intake distribution was based on responses to questions concerning grain-containing foods given in a 1986 food frequency questionnaire as part of the Iowa Women's Health Study. In formulating products with whole grains, assumptions were made about serving size (grams), the proportion of flour in the existing product, and the proportion of that flour that is whole grain. If intake is unchanged by formulation modifications, adding whole-grain flour to existing formulations in amounts that we believe would have imperceptible effects on taste and texture would increase the number of 16-g whole-grain servings per day for these Iowa women from 2.0 to 3.3. For those who currently consume more refined-grain foods, the effect of adding small amounts of whole-grain flour would be even larger on a percentage basis. Gradual incorporation of whole-grain flour into a variety of grain-based foods may provide a vehicle for increasing whole-grain intake in the U.S. population, with the possible added benefit of familiarizing consumers with whole-grain products.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)114-117
Number of pages4
JournalCereal Foods World
Issue number3
StatePublished - May 2006


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