Glycoprotein nonmetastatic melanoma protein B (GNMPB) as a novel biomarker for cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy

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Adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) is an X-linked peroxisomal disease caused by a mutation in the ABCD1 gene, producing mutations in the very long chain fatty acid transporter, ALD protein. Cerebral ALD (cALD) is a severe phenotype of ALD with neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Elevated levels of Glycoprotein Nonmetastatic Melanoma Protein B (GNMPB) have been recently documented in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Multiple Sclerosis and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. Our objective was to measure the levels cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) GNMPB in cALD patients to determine if GNMPB could be a potential biomarker in tracking cALD disease progression. CSF GNMPB levels were significantly higher in cALD patients versus controls (2407 ± 1672 pg/mL vs. 639.5 ± 404 pg/mL, p = 0.0009). We found a positive correlation between CSF GNMPB and MRI disease severity score levels (R 2  = 0.3225, p < 0.0001) as well as the gadolinium intensity score (p = 0.0204). Boys with more severe neurologic deficits also had higher levels of CSF GNMPB (p < 0.0001). A positive correlation was shown between CSF GNMPB and another biomarker, chitotriosidase (R 2  = 0.2512, p = 0.0244). These data show that GNMPB could be a potential biomarker of cALD disease state and further studies should evaluate it as a predictor of the disease progression.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number7985
JournalScientific reports
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022, The Author(s).


  • Adrenoleukodystrophy/diagnosis
  • Biomarkers/metabolism
  • Disease Progression
  • Humans
  • Melanoma
  • Membrane Glycoproteins/metabolism
  • Receptors, Fc

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article


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