Chronic inflammation underlies the development of metabolic diseases and individuals with metabolic disease often also suffer from delayed wound healing due to prolonged inflammation. Resolving inflammation provides a therapeutic strategy in treating metabolic diseases. We previously showed that during an anti-inflammatory response when macrophages were alternatively (M2) polarized, retinoic acid (RA) dramatically activated arginase 1 gene (Arg1), a gene crucial for wound healing. Here we report that a widely used sulfonylurea drug for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), glyburide, enhances the anti-inflammatory response and synergizes with RA to promote wound healing. Our data also delineate the mechanism underlying glyburide's anti-inflammatory effect, which is to stimulate the degradation of a pro-inflammatory regulator, Receptor Interacting Protein 140 (RIP140), by activating Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CamKII) that triggers specific ubiquitination of RIP140 for degradation. By stimulating RIP140 degradation, glyburide enhances M2 polarization and anti-inflammation. Using a high-fat diet induced obesity mouse model to monitor wound healing effects, we provide a proof-of-concept for a therapeutic strategy that combining glyburide and RA can significantly improve wound healing. Mechanistically, this study uncovers a new mechanism of action of glyburide and a new pathway modulating RIP140 protein degradation that is mediated by CamKII signaling.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by NIH grants DK54733, DK60521, and the Dean’s Commitment and the Distinguished McKnight Professorship of University of Minnesota to LNW.