Furan is a liver carcinogen and toxicant. Furan is oxidized to the reactive dialdehyde, cis-2-butene-1,4-dial, by microsomal enzymes. This reactive metabolite readily reacts with glutathione nonenzymatically to form conjugates. A high-performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical method for the detection of cis-2-butene-1,4-dial-glutathione (GSH) conjugates in microsomal preparations was developed to measure the extent of furan metabolism to cis-2-butene-1,4-dial in vitro. Previously unobserved mono-GSH reaction products of cis-2-butene-1,4-dial were detected in addition to the already characterized bis-GSH conjugates. Chemical characterization of these compounds indicated that the α-amino group of glutathione had reacted with cis-2-butene-1,4-dial to form a thiol-substituted pyrrole adduct. The analytical method was used to estimate the extent of furan oxidation in rat liver microsomes from untreated or acetone-pretreated F344 rats as well as in human P450 2E1 Supersomes. Our results confirm that cytochrome P450 2E1 can catalyze the oxidation of furan to cis-2-butene-1,4-dial. However, the data are also consistent with the involvement of other P450 enzymes in the oxidation of furan in untreated animals. This assay will be a valuable tool to explore tissue and species differences in rates of furan oxidation.