Charcot-Leyden crystals (CLCs) are the hallmark of many eosinophilic-based diseases, such as asthma. Here, we report that reduced glutathione (GSH) disrupts CLCs and inhibits crystallization of human galectin-10 (Gal-10). GSH has no effect on CLCs from monkeys (Macaca fascicularis or M. mulatta), even though monkey Gal-10s contain Cys29 and Cys32. Interestingly, human Gal-10 contains another cysteine residue (Cys57). Because GSH cannot disrupt CLCs formed by the human Gal-10 variant C57A or inhibit its crystallization, the effects of GSH on human Gal-10 or CLCs most likely occur by chemical modification of Cys57. We further report the crystal structures of Gal- 10 from M. fascicularis and M. mulatta, along with their ability to bind to lactose and inhibit erythrocyte agglutination. Structural comparison with human Gal-10 shows that Cys57 and Gln75 within the ligand binding site are responsible for the loss of lactose binding. Pull-down experiments and mass spectrometry show that human Gal-10 interacts with tubulin α-1B, with GSH, GTP and Mg2+ stabilizing this interaction and colchicine inhibiting it. Overall, this study enhances our understanding of Gal-10 function and CLC formation and suggests that GSH may be used as a pharmaceutical agent to ameliorate CLC-induced diseases.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 32171255) and Industrialization Cultivation Planning Project of Jilin Provincial Department of Education (No. JJKH20221168CY).
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- Charcot-Leyden crystal
- Tubulin α-1B
PubMed: MeSH publication types
- Journal Article